Compensated DatingSandy was merely curious when she wrote her first post on the online dating forum. Sex work was the forbidden fruit — enticing, kinky, definitely taboo. Late one night, after a friend in the industry briefed her on legal issues and gave her tips on how to please a client, she decided she wanted in. The next morning, she used a forum to self-promote, and by nightfall, she had her first customer. It was as simple as that.
This training is one of the services Zi Teng provides, alongside medical and legal help. The organisation teaches girls how to monitor sexual transactions and be aware of occupational risk.
Without a knowledge of how to handle such situations, women are often blackmailed or tricked into having unprotected sex.Compensated Dating in Taiwan
But what about women who are forced into the industry by financial trouble? Sex workers also need money. The combined efforts of media coverage and NGO activism have put a dent in the stigma over the years. The money is what keeps Sandy in the industry, despite her day job as a freelance graphic designer.
Doing compensated dating, she says, can buy her two or three years to cultivate new skills and interests. File Photo: Pexels. Photo: Zi Teng. Photo: Apple Daily.
File photo: Pexels. File photo: BrokenSphere via Wikimedia Commons. The houses and cars were taken away — but the gambling continued. Soon afterwards she started working to support her family. Mui Mui worked in the finance industry, but got laid off last year.
He wanted to have sex with me without paying first. Then I remembered some experienced daters told me not to agree with anything until you get the money, so I rejected him. Finally he got cranky and upset, and did nasty things with me before he walked out of the hotel room.
These people always made me wonder how much pressure people in Hong Kong are under. But I think it was still too awkward for both of us, and then we were gradually estranged. Now maybe we still have something between us, since neither of us ever suggests that we sign the divorce papers.
Ching suggests that the government should integrate and reorganise all the available resources for women into a clear system with easy access. Mui Mui, however, sees younger students who do compensated dating as financially secure. For example, strate. Resources in crime commission. Although the current study provides some conceptual and practical advancement.
First, the self-reported data in this study contain bias because of possible distortion in. Data collected from other parties who play a role in the. Second, participants in the study were volunteers and were.
Under such circumstances.
Compensated dating, which involves girls being paid to go on dates that often involve In this letter, I would like to state the causes of compensated dating and . We sought to study the prevalence of the compensated dating (CD) . as the primary reason that juvenile prostitutes remain in the prostitution. ????? ??? No.6. An Examination of the Causes and. Consequences of Compensated Dating. (Enjo-Kosai)in Contemporary. Japanese Society.
Difficulty in recruiting interviewees. Briefly describe your family background and yourself e. Describe the positive and negative aspects of your relationship with your. Does your family help you solve your problems? Has anyone in your family received any social service?
Describe such an. How has your family responded to your involvement in compensated dating? What is your perception of your involvement in compensated dating? What is your perception of the involvement of other young people in compen. Did you have worries during your involvement in compensated dating? Elaborate on these risks and rewards. Describe your involvement process in compensated dating. How did you. How did you become connected with customers or pimps? Did you have any preference regarding the date, time, venue, or customer?
The author is very thankful to Paul Ekblom for his inspiring suggestions and thoughtful com. The author s declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship. The author s disclosed the receipt of the following financial support for the research, author. The data support the notion of Ekblom and Tilley that resources significantly influ. Resources are the core competences of an offender for crime.
These resources include a personal resources e. Baier, C. If you love me, keep my commandments: A meta-analysis. Barthelemy, K. Young people's relationships with sugar daddies and sugar mum. African Journal of Reproductive. Health8 Bennett, T. Burglars on burglary: Prevention and the offender. Brock, D.
Compensated dating: Social problem or a road to empowerment and easy cash?
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Compensated dating in Hong Kong
Profiling illegal waste activity: Using crime scripts as data. Tyler, K. The effects of early sexual abuse on. Journal of. Interpersonal Violence15 Wakabayashi, T. Enjokosai in Japan: Rethinking the dual image of prostitutes in. Japanese and American Law. Wortley, R. Applying situational principles to sexual offenses against. Smallbone Eds. Wright, R. Burglars on the job. Boston, MA: Northeastern. Choosing the target.
Cromwell Ed. Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury. Yeung, S. An empirical study on the social, psychological and. Jiayi, Taiwan: National Chung. Citations References Recently, compensated dating CD has become a phenomenon of concern.
These three terms CD, teen prostitution, and sexual exploitation are therefore used interchangeably in this article. Originating in Japan in the s, CD enjo-kosai in Japanese has become a widespread social problem in many Asian societies, including Korea e.
This study is important for three reasons. First, although considerable empirical work has been conducted to assess the factors contributing to CD e. Other studies have analyzed public attitudes toward commercial sex e. Exploitation, Offense, or Private Issue? Compensated dating CD has emerged as a global concern since the s.
Although considerable empirical research has been conducted to assess the patterns of and factors influencing CD, limited information is currently available on the attitudes of guardians e. Results show that these guardians perceive CD to be exploitative or harmful and that their self-efficacy in handling this issue was low.
In particular, social workers appeared to be considerably tolerant for this phenomenon.
Compensated dating cause
Perceptions of CD were partly predictable by age, gender, and educational attainment, whereas self-efficacy was partly predictable by experience working with cases involving CD. Moreover, this research has implications for social intervention, policy, and future research.
When people talk about 'compensated dating' in Hong Kong, they usually . Viewing unemployment as another reason why women resort to. Let's discuss the causes that girls go on compensated dating first. The main reason is to earn money. Many teenage girls who engage in compensated dates are. Some years ago, an expatriate news editor asked what the difference was between prostitution and “compensated dating” during an editorial.
Compensated dating [1,2], also known as enjo kosai in Japa- neseassisted relationship , freelance teenage sex work , and casual teen prostitution , emerged in Japan in s and has spread to other Asian societies including Korea , Thailand , Taiwan , Shanghai  and Hong Kong  in the early s. The compensated dating phenomenon was considered similar to youth sexual exploitation, defined as the exchange of sexual activity for money or other consideration according to Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights .
However, some researchers have argued that compensated dating does not fit into any form of prostitu- tion as another form of sexual exploitation [7, 9] because com- pensated dating includes not only sexual transactions but also nonsexual social activities, such as having karaoke, meals, and movies together . Besides, youth engaged in compensated dating seem to have free choice of clients or as they called 'friends' and have large flexibility to choose how and where to "work" and "quit" without any agents [2,6].
Compensated dating is seen as a transitional stage prior to youth prostitution in Korea and Hong Kong [1,2]; whereas compensated dating is seen as an- other form of sexual exploration and "professional" sex work with tangible and sizable profits in Taiwan . From the youths' perspective, compensated dating is sometimes seen as a form of sexual exploration that helps them to achieve sexu- al excitement and experimenting with the various flirting and seductive behaviors and facilitates their self-actualization and improves self-esteem in that engaging in compensated dating has enlarged their social exposure by selling services to people with higher social status that they could not normally reach  ; and some stated that compensated dating helps to affirm their sexual attractiveness by setting a price for their bodies .
Moreover, in low-income countries, compensated dating has been seen as a valid occupation for easy and quick money and material returns to support luxurious living expenses, hobbies, and trips [1,6]. Sexual and mental health in compensated dating in youth in Hong Kong: An exploratory quantitative study.
Full-text available. Jan A recent Hong Kong survey using a purposive sample of delinquent youngsters girls and boys referred by social service agencies revealed that The factors contributing to compensated dating or commercial sex e. However, the public perception of the activity has not been fully explored. Compensated dating enjo-kosai in Japanese originated in Japan in the s, and subsequently became prevalent in Korea e. Wakabayashi asserted that enjo-kosai may consist of various nonsexual services, including having dinner, watching a movie, or visiting an amusement park.
Therefore, compensated dating among teens does not always involve prostitution see Table 1but in most cases, sex services are provided Li, After conducting an expert group meeting with various parties and consulting previous studies, this study's research team defines compensated dating as any behavior involving subsidized dating and freelance teenage prostitution.
This article presents public discourses on compensated dating of adolescent girls in Chinese society. Data are obtained from eight focus groups comprising 50 guardians at private, parochial, and public levels i. Qualitative data are used to demonstrate how the guardians conceptualize and contextualize compensated dating as an outcome of the dynamics of societal features. This study is the first to connect the features of compensated dating of adolescent girls with recent societal changes using the routine activity approach.
On the other side of the world, the prevalence of compensated dating Yuan Jiao; an Eastern form of underage prostitution, literally means the "exchange of intimate sexual behavior with monetary rewards in Hong Kong has been estimated to be 2. These adolescents were more likely to exhibit risky sexual behavior and resulted in unintended pregnancy . There is no official statistics regarding adolescent sexuality in Macau, but we believe that the situation should be similar to that of Hong Kong.
When considering the fact that early sexual initiation has been widely recognized as an important social and health issue e. Further research may be needed to strengthen the construct validity of sexual misconduct. Wing Lo John W. Tse Christopher H. Cheng Gloria H. This study investigates how peer influence, school attachment, and substance abuse are related to sexual behavior, with particular interest in exploring the relationship between substance abuse and sexual misconduct, while using a stratified random sample of adolescents in Macau.
Mediation analyses were employed. Substance abuse was the best predictor of sexual misconduct, and it significantly mediated the relationship between susceptibility to peer influence, as well as school attachment and sexual misconduct. This reflects that the use of substances, including drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes, can be viewed as a catalyst for triggering engagement in sexual misconduct. The implications of this study involve taking measures to reduce the rate of substance abuse as a way of decreasing sexual misconduct in adolescents.
Future research directions in exploring the relationship between adolescent substance abuse and risky sexual behavior are discussed. While research has indicated that efforts are required to address and mitigate the plights of sexually exploited children and adolescents e.
Andersson et al. This is due to the reasons that sexual exploitation of minors occurs at the margins of society and behind closed doors; in some countries such as Tanzania, there is an absence of specific policies for deal- ing with sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, and in most cases, there are no special- ised trainings for addressing all forms of sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.
Findings (2): Reason why the teenagers offered compensated dating. purchasing brand name bags (87%). receive luxurious gifts from the. The compensated dating industry is what makes sex work in Hong Kong unique. Meanwhile, Sandy – who has been doing compensated dating since . Havoc I caused is 'unforgivable': Hong Kong's Carrie Lam says she. Compensated dating can cause physical harm. There is a high risk of being assaulted by customers or contracting diseases. Remember: three.
Sexual exploitation exposes children and adolescents to negative consequences ranging from phys- ical through psychological, cognitive and social to lifetime development Hodge, The consequences of sexual exploitation may not manifest instantly, but in most cases 'progress to serious manifestations including depression, ulcers, colitis, chronic low self-esteem, problems with bonding and forming relationships, developmental delays, migraines, self-abuse, acting-out behaviour, attempted suicide and in some cases suicide' Shoop, Sexual exploitation of adolescent students in Tanzania: Implication for social services.
A considerable empirical research has been conducted on sexual exploitation of children and adolescents; however, limited information is available in developing countries. This study describes and discusses the prevalence, nature and characteristics of sexual exploitation of adolescents using data collected from secondary school students in Tanzania.
Results indicate that 21 percent of the surveyed adolescent students had had at least one experience of sexual exploitation. Being a female, living in rural areas and being aged above 15 years were associated with high risk of sexual exploitation.
This study underscores gender- and locality-specific social work interventional requirements, with emphasis on interdisciplinary collaborative efforts. Data sources: Of the 85 selected studies that include at least one original crime script, 60 71 percent contain information about data sources used to generate the scripts: 8 publications indicated that their scripts had been created from primary data Rege, ;Jacques and Bernasco, ; Li,29 scripts were created using a mix of primary and secondary data for example, Brayley et al.
In several cases, we found that authors had used the basic script structure available in a publication as a starting point, before using primary or secondary data to populate the script with details for example, Bright and Delaney, Crime scripting: A systematic review. Jun Eur J Criminol. The study provides evidence confirming that the approach is increasingly popular; and takes stock of crime scripting practices through a systematic review of over scripts published between and The results offer the first comprehensive picture of this approach and highlight new directions for those interested in using data from cyber-systems and the Internet of Things to develop effective situational crime prevention measures.
Loughran, Paternoster, Chalfin, and Wilson found that in the cost-benefit calculation, the benefits have more weight than the costs see also Li, Additionally, the authors showed that, among the serious juvenile delinquents, drug, violent and property offenses are more influenced by the anticipated reward. Mar This paper aims to summarise and integrate the accumulated knowledge on recent literature analysing the situational factors of juvenile delinquency and draw future avenues for research.
A review of recent empirical papers published on two relevant databases allowed us to gather a sample of 88 papers published from to that analyse the role of situational factors of delinquent behaviour using quantitative methods and applying one of the situational theories.
The results highlight the robustness of some situational and environmental variables for a deeper understanding of juvenile antisocial behaviour by putting it into context. There is a considerable amount of evidence to corroborate the impact of unstructured leisure activities on antisocial behaviour, or the role of home location in establishing a geographic area of action.
However, there is ambiguous evidence on other aspects: i. Future research lines from this perspective are needed and will offer relevant improvements for better understanding juvenile delinquency and designing more effective preventive measures. Understanding the barriers and factors to HIV testing intention of women engaging in compensated dating in Hong Kong: The application of the extended Theory of Planned Behavior.
Background: Women engaging in compensated dating is one of the at risk group of HIV infection due to multiple sexual partnerships and risky sexual practices. The present study examined the prevalence of HIV testing behavior and intention, and identified factors associated with HIV testing intention among women engaging in compensated dating in Hong Kong.
Factors from the Theory of Planned Behaviors and the role of various types of barriers to HIV testing were also explored. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional survey was conducted online.
Target participants were women who have engaged in compensated dating and provided sex services to clients. Participants were recruited via three sources, including i online outreaching, ii referral made by NGOs, and iii referral made by participants.
A total of participants completed the study. Results: Respectively Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the applicability of extended TPB in HIV testing intention among women engaging in compensated dating.
Interventions to promote HIV testing among this group are greatly warranted. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating. Oct J Adolesc.